Embolization is an endovascular procedure which enables intentional closing of certain blood vessel using temporary or permanent embolization material. Embolization procedures are performed on arterial blood vessels in case of: aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms, in case of AV communications (congenital or iatrogenic), in case of minor bleeding, as well as in case of certain tumors in order to reduce their preoperative size.
The procedure is performed under local anesthesia by accessing the blood vessel through the arteries of the legs, while the control is performed using X – rays in the angio room, with the injection of iodine contrast agent. Durable devices such as metal spirals and vascular plugs as well as covered stents (stent grafts) are most commonly used. Various chemical agents are also used, which aim at enabling blood coagulation and closing the blood vessel. During embolization, special attention must be paid to avoid the embolization of unwanted vascular structures. At the end of the procedure, manual compression or a special type of artery closure device are used to close the access point.